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Consider that thy mother and father are thy first instructors; Parvati and Siva are the greatest of teachers. It is a shame to call those teachers who are hired.


Whatever orpiment may be, there is not the least tin in it, though the three (powder, tin and lead) be found, it is not attached to them; but in the flaming fire is tin produced.

p. 172


He smiles, he reads, he sings, whatever he do he is not pained, but pleased with all and at one time will forget all. He is young, he becomes old. Consider who this is.


If the water exudes and stands, mud is produced; but when thick rain pours, it will not remain. Reveal not this path but know it well (thus does sloth reduce men to sensuality).


The water shows the might of a ship; the plain shows the power of a car; but the power of a woman is seen wherever she be.


Who am I to think in any mind or who am I to be without meditation; alas the deity appears to man, and conceals itself.


p. 173

The great family being thus extensive, is it a wise practice to think so much of the tribes of the various rishis? Can a monkey of the woods govern the world?


He who desires not milk, water, ghee, boiled rice, women--this is steadfast soul. He shall not fail in a single point nor walk in another path.


The swan knows water from milk, but how should the peacock know it. Then can a brute beast know God?


He will bestow on the vile and the jesters; he will give it for a pariar, skin, the son of a pariar; or to the drab of a fair, he bestows not on the excellent.


They know merely the teaching of the ancients, they have not the smallest sense; they gain nothing but wrangling; sad work like a thief who has no pleasure in moon light.


p. 174

They talk as if life were eternal and pride themselves greatly, the fools. All beings are as sheep bound for sacrifice before Yama.


The divines call divinity; if thou consider well, it is with thee already; but they cannot see the form that is before them.


In their mind they cannot discern the form of God. Those who can view it in their mind exist not in the earth; but he who searcheth in his body and recognizeth it with delight in him, is the noblest of yogees.


The mind is the fire that produces both good and evil; surely then let us know its greatness and its meanness in the closing and opening of an eye; does the mind roam afar is not this evident?


Born from coition were all men and thus they long for it; without hindrance all haste to that by which they were produced.

p. 175


If life have passed away for even half an hour, hath even Brahma himself power to vivify him? Hath Brahma then power either to slay or cause to live?


These words of discrimination, thus spoken by Vemadu. This insane conduct of Vema proves to be adverse to all fools. But to the wise, they are felicity.


Knowing that this book is a means of attaining both this and that world, they who write. read, hear this, it shall slay by its might the acts they have hitherto or (during life) done, it is even for others the path to beatitude.


This is not such learning as are the Vedas. This is not the language of a hero (such as the Ramayana). This is no painful knowledge. It is no great thing. This is that sweet knowledge that stays the mind. That is fragrant which is soon learnt (for svādu some read sādhu, here and in the next verse).

p. 177


He who goes on saying I will give to you; but whenever you come to him puts off the time; the slaves that merely make false promises be they hanged in a noose.


The verses of Vemana may be interpreted in a thousand ways if thou closely consider them. By reading and again reading then thou shalt attain curious wisdom.


All those excellent ones who have read with sound sense a verse uttered by Vemana, these shall be exalted to dwell on the head of Siva (Somu); let then with thorough consent study them with wisdom.


To consider omens and all circumstances with interest, regarding a marriage with the daughter of a maternal uncle--It is all one sea that you enter.

p. 177


If both parties are in poverty, let them by as much money as seems requisite, prepare a vessel of rice, and give the bride. Eat not the bread of prostitute.


What thou it be son-in-law or no connection, we have set forth the proper rules; not even a leaf trembles unknown to god.


Though thou are poor, if thou say to a man, I will give thee my daughter, ask not for gold with harshness; to accept gold from him is vile as if you were to take your own daughter.


The boundary of the village appears to no one (yēriki for evariki); it is earth not again apparent void of mark, it cannot again be found; consumption (or tenanting it) is the only sure boundary which does not depend upon stones.

p. 178


The kings and princes who trusted the boundary stones have left their food, fallen and perished in the earth. The sons of demons who destroy these stones retain their villages and estates, and live there. (This is evidently aired at the Mahommedan government--estate is here mahal, the Persian word).


That possession that we have held for three generations without paying a sean as homage, the usufruct we enjoy is our strength. No other means, however numerous, are of any avail.


The writing, the possession and the evidence--in these three rests secure enjoyment of long duration; even in the courts of heaven they say these three have great weight (easy, pure sanscrit).


If the objections be good that disturb your ancient enjoyment of property, the writings are the basis of all, and set aside the old tenant, if his right be not good.

p. 179


You may speak a hundred words but beware of writing down one. No evidence is required if the writing is produced. But in case writing is wanted then indeed good witnesses are required. (easy, pure Telugu),


When both the writing and enjoyment are combined, then is the evidence sure. When the writing and enjoyment are both wanting all other evidence is fruitless.


If along with the first witness an opposing witness be adduced, the preceding witness is of avail. The latter witness is the source of in influence. (lit. power.)


No authority (lit. great men) will accept of a (metca) sole witness, though he speak. no one will lend him an ear. If Item be two witnesses we may hold it true. A respectable house holder is the only witness.

p. 180


When a great combat for a boundary begins, rather than killing each other in the dispute let old farmers who know the origin walk the path of the boundary. (Disputed boundaries are thus settled by an experienced farmer being appointed to walk on the correct line of path demarcation).


If one regard not right and wrong, and in any degree void of foresight, change the boundary path, desiring the worthless stones, and have them removed, and put his foot there (to establish another path), sin attaches to him.


It is fit to put diverse marks off the fixed boundary stones, foreseeing evil. Walk with a view to the present and the coming world. The next world is known to thee O Vema!


If you perform the ceremonies of donation (by pouring water into the hand), and provide copper tablets, connect them with a thick ring and on the joining of the ring the royal seal be affixed, this forms a sasanam (charter) in the earth.

p. 181


At an (hour when all the people of the village come along with him, with appropriate observances with a drawn sword, let him walk separately and lay down the land mark with care.


Behind the man while he is digging the boundary, let the opposite dig an opposite bound and let all the chief men give him their blessings.


Let a farmer who is void of even the least deceit quickly and without timidity walk on the track of his feet, and let the good and chief men who know the fact also walk it.


The (jewel of calculators) good accountant who takes a pole thirty two feet long, places it and measures it; let him receive the blessings of the people and live in virtue.

p. 182


The writing of the excellent man who measures the land leaving on each side of the measuring pole six steps as long as a cow's foot steps (unapportioned to either), that writing will be stable and able to reply even to the writing of fate.


Those men who cause the land to be measured (colva cheyu) with arithmetical standard of the pole and the rod and with skill know to supportion the compensation of the foot (measure of a bow's foot allowed on each side as verse 744). These are arithmeticians.


The use of having eyes is that he may know the quality of the field and the fitness of the tenant. If when he measureth, he regard not the rules of calculation, but does it hastily in the space of a twinkling of the eye, he shall depart void of male offspring.


He who knows the due shares of the crop and the fruitfulness of the lands, well versed in equity, suitable council

p. 183

[paragraph continues] (lit. contrivance), who knows the due division of shares pertaining to the government and the farmer, and on his guard against sin (injustice), he who knows also how to write all his is the chief (lit. jewel) of men.


The measurements of tanks and ponds, the measurement used in fields and small plots the measurement along boundaries without hindrance--to know the rules for these is a victory.


All those debased ones, who not recognising equity, measure the earth with a pole and over-reach in the measurement--these shall in the transmigration be born as leeches (the irregular floundering pace of which resembles their careless measurement.)


Parched fields, dry without rain, if excessive rain fall, are destroyed. He who looks to his crop expecting crop upon crop, a luckless wretch is he wherever he be.


p. 184

They who are distinguished (or humble) in instruction, in recluseness, (not exact means) and devotion, and those who are no evil doers (mischievous) but united to wisdom--the verses that Vemana has nobly written are numerous by the number of thousands, beyond the power even of these men to write. (a singularly complicate verse).


A woman who gives no food or drink is no true wife to her husband. She is rather his destiny. The husband who is united with such a woman perishes without the chance of being born again. He will perish degraded and become a reptile.


Composed of desire and cupidity, and of stubborn hearts are women. What can we say of the conduct of women? Faithfulness is their chief virtue. They are in other respects mere figs--fair without but worms within.


Women perform (pettu) sraddha (funeral rites) to women; what witness is there in women to do this. Then performing (iduta) it to women, better it performed to stones!

p. 185


By the anniversary ceremonies the whole caste is ruined; by the conduct of women all respectability (shame) is destroyed; by ponds that are spoiled this world is; destroyed (good water being thus wasted) and life is ruined by slanders.


When a woman is called to attend a funeral, the funeral is a (useless) ruined funeral. Males alone can be the performers or guests herein (carta, bhocta).


To the funeral feasts of widows, why instead of inviting widows, why do they invite Brahmins; to the funeral of a married woman ye invite married wives.


If thou give the funeral feast to widows, void of means, they would rejoice, in every one of thy acts; but through thy neglecting this, thy former acts in a preceding birth become hateful in this world of earth, sky and air (i.e., void of favour before men, gods and demigods).

p. 186


Searching, searching and searching, fretting (or being fatigued) and fretting, wandering, wandering and wandering till your head turns giddy. I saw that it is like beholding a puppet show.


Those that bear (see) us and those we bear (or see),knowing their deaths are at hand, and knowing our own, delusion suffers us not to know this. But her house deserted!


Though he read all that can be read and attain ample discrimination but how shall the hypocrite (consider) attain beatitude--like as the wandering wishes of a dog though lying at ease on the hearth.


If you seat a dog in a royal sedan, it cannot remain fixed in one mind. Thus cannot the man of ignorant mind restrain his soul.


p. 187

Born on the earth, growing up in earth how shall a man quit the earth and attain heaven. The bliss of heaven does not exist in this earth.


What has the sage to do with rites? The sage requires no concealment; if the excellent man possesses undefiled wisdom he shall in this earth attain deliverance from all earthly ties.


He who offering erroneous prayers for wealth attain good works, through that wealth shall not attain honour. By honouring a teacher, he shall comprehend the greatness of the divine glory, and shine for .ever. (a loose version)


To be subject to (joined with) desire and avarice is a great grief. He that quits desire is the perfect man. If avarice leave thee thou shalt know the bliss of the next world.


Like him who, knowing the suitability of stones uniteth stones into a binding; if like him, thou know the desirable arrangement of thy mind and thus order thy mind--hereby shalt thou know the divinity and thenceforth live in happiness.

p. 188


Bearing a load of (a toom full of) jonna a stupid bullock still wears a bell proudly on its neck; while it wears a bell and serves, blows follow it.


The excellence of him that is united with the deity is known to himself alone. How can others comprehend it? If he be himself become the God why should he worship him?


In the worship of God, in the temples, he showed us a path saying. There is the God. If ye understood it, this entire world is that deity which is origin of all the Gods.


All virtue combined became man, and he was produced; all sin combined, and woman (fiend) was born. Knowing woman to be evil, yet when ye see her ye fear to abhor her.


If a whore, faithful, comes perpetually she is not faithful but death. If death enters your house, will she not devour you?

p. 189


If you do not put a basketful of bran before it, the she buffalo you have bought will not let you milk. He can you vainly love a dancing girl?


What does the arrogant high way man know of (care for poverty? As you call out for mercy he merely breaks your head) What does the young prostitute care about considering virtues of the faithful wife?


A house without a liberal man is a great demon street; a word void of wisdom is a blow with a stone; a loveless whore is a murderess.


He that says not thus large are her eyes, thus large her breasts, and who shines not thus entangled doth not desert devotion--this is the permanent sage.


p. 190

This body is a leathern puppet with joints--a vessel full of lies. A shiftless whore, an entangled car--who can describe its abominations.


We must of necessity ramble as far as the mind rambles and must turn when the mind turns. He that roams and rambles--he seems as a God.


This is not a tattered cloth, says the recluse, but a fair vest; this is not a foul body but beatitude. Behold and wander at the greatness of him who is devoted to the Supreme.


Happy is he who without considering this or that place, everywhere dwells as Siva. To them of understanding he appears as a God.


Taking the flesh as a covering does the deceived creature devour flesh, If he were released from the flesh could he speak?

p. 191


The talker shall in one way or another perish surely, the wise shall alone be happy and glorious in the earth; let disputes be ceased from and thus shall the yogee attain overwhelming ecstasy and thus gain perfection. (very hard)


Who are those that hear of or have seen the deity. Those who have heard of him alone see him. Gaze steadily on him whether in the form of ocean or any other.


Ignorant that the deity shines abroad in the earth, why should ye search imagining him elsewhere? That the deity exists within thee is truth.


Surely void of the creator exists not the creation The creator formed it diversely. Look to that external world. Look to that eternal world that is without creator.


p. 192

He that perceiveth not him shall never become him. He who is in them is His. He that hath seen Him is himself the yogee.


Seeing the love of women sages (sanyasees) will love them, being immersed in the infamy of the world; when it has caught a bird, the cat is happy.


What does the dog know of the linga priests, God? What does the fox know of one meal a day and fasting? What does the obstinate fool know of the path of beatitude.


A pot without a bottom is unprofitable, a devotee without strength of body is useless. He has become like a shaven widow woman alas, alas.


It would be amazing if the ocean of six thousand paths should ever be so stirred up as to turn sweet. Though you should teach the knowledge of God in a thousand ways to a piece of wood, it would be vain, O Vema.

p. 193


Though they search, they cannot discover that one God who alone is skilled in the scriptures; but the excellent man perceives Him in the earth. Him who is and is not, they cannot behold.


Ignorant of the true nature of inferiority and superiority, through desire ye perform salutations. Who is the honoured, which is the worshipper? What intrinsic difference exists?


If they see a sage, they who are bound in the ties of this world simply call him mad. They cannot quit their nature. If a fool should in this earth seek nature, shall he find it?


Men devoid of wisdom are indeed multitudinous, but though thou examine no man of wisdom is to be perceived. Through the deceptions of nature we cannot perceive the divinity.


p. 194

When a plan is devised, unless it be performed, the hire is not given. Unless she satisfy your desire you would not give her a shilling. Thus is the teacher that bestows no beatitude is a son of apes!


When a pararamour takes one, is disgusted and leaves her; then (or afterwards), another takes and loves her. Will not dogs lick the leaf-plate that is tossed away after eating.


When we see a girl and exclaim how large are her eyes and how fair her breasts, the mind is deluded and falls in love, unable to perceive Him who dwells within our mortal frame.


He who through an airy nature falls in love is even ensnared by a girl with sunken eyes. He is born, lives, and again is born ceaselessly.


Growing by sucking the breast, he falls in love with the breast. By her breast, beatitude becomes insipid. He who will lave the breast is a saint forever.

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